Magnetic Torque Rods / Magnetorquers

"Torque rods are electromagnets mounted on a spacecraft for attitude control. When a current passes through the torque rod, it produces a magnetic field that interacts with the Earth's geomagnetic field, thus producing a torque on the spacecraft and changing its orientation." (Stickler and Alfriend 1976)


Stickler, A. Craig, and K. T. Alfriend. "Elementary magnetic attitude control system." Journal of spacecraft and rockets 13, no. 5 (1976): 282-287.