Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System

Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System is a NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder Mission planned to collect the first frequent space‐based measurements of surface wind speeds in the inner core of tropical cyclones. Made up of a constellation of eight microsatellites, which practically provide no-gap observations with an average and a median revisit time of seven and three hours, respectively. CYGNSS is unique because it is, NASA’s first mission to perform surface remote sensing using an existing Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)


NASA. Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) | PO.DAAC / JPL / NASA [Internet]. NASA. [cited 2021 Sep 14]. Available from:…

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Recently, in July 2021, destructive and deadly floods occurred in Western Europe. The estimated insured losses only in Germany could approach 5 billion Euros (AIR Worldwide, 2021). However, the total amount of the damage is currently not foreseeable due to the variety and complexity of the damage patterns and the unbelievable extent of the disaster. It seems the socio-economic losses will dramatically increase and break a new record in the insurance industry after evaluating the complete record of damages’ reports (see Figure 1).