"A geologic formation that holds and yields usable amounts of water. The water in an aquifer is called groundwater. Aquifers may be categorized into con ned aquifers and uncon ned aquifers." (U.S. Geological Survey, 2019)


U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). "Water Science Glossary Terms". USGS Water Science School. (2019). Link:

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Global groundwater supplies

Groundwater accounts for 30% of Earth’s freshwater resources (Shiklomanov 1993) (Figure 1) and is estimated to globally provide 36% of potable water, 42% of irrigation water, and 24% of industrial water – indicating its significant value (Global Environment Facility 2021). Groundwater affords a host of benefits, from providing better protection against drought and microbiological contamination than surface waters, to being generally low cost and accessible to many users.