Top of Atmosphere Reflectance (TOA)

Top of Atmosphere (TOA) Reflectance is a unitless measurement which provides the ratio of radiation reflected to the incident solar radiation on a given surface.” (Earth starts beating, 2017)


“Top of Atmosphere Reflectance on Sentinel 3”. Earth Starts Beating, Sentinels of the world. Las modified April 27, 2017.
Accessed March 12, 2019.

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Leveraging space technologies to monitor plastic pollution in oceans


Several ongoing projects are trying to detect plastic pollution in oceans by using Space technology

The ocean is where life began. It is home to the majority of the Earth’s plants and animals. However, there is currently another habitant endangering all species living under and above water. Humans included. The habitant is called “Plastic”. Plastic’s largest market is packaging designed for immediate disposal (Sigogneau-Russell, 2003).