Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)
"The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is a broad-band, four or five channel (depending on the model) scanner, sensing in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is used to measure Earth surface temperature." (Xiong et al. 2018)
“AVHRRs are orbited on NOAA satellites in near-polar (∼98°), sun-synchronous orbits (meaning the satellite passes over a region at the same local solar time) at an altitude of about 830 km.
The AVHRR instrument was originally built by the ITT Industries in Fort Wayne, IN, and it has evolved over the years from AVHRR/1 series with four channels (0.63, 0.86, 3.7, and 11 μm) since 1978 on TIROS-N and NOAA-6/8/10 to AVHRR/2 series with an addition of the 12 μm channel since 1981 on NOAA-7/9/11/12/13/14 (Cracknell, 1997 in International Geophysics, 2000).”
Xiong, X., J. Butler, C. Cao, and X. Wu. 2018. “Optical Sensors—VIS/NIR/SWIR.” In Comprehensive Remote Sensing, 353–75. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9.10325-2
International Geophysics. 2000. “Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer.” Science Direct.
Space technologies for drought monitoring and management
The impacts of climate change are ever more apparent. The frequency and scale of devastation and destruction of weather hazards are on an increasing trend. According to the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report (IPCC, 2021) climate change is intensifying the water cycle. This will cause more intense droughts in many regions. Moreover, water-related extremes impact the quality of life disproportionately strong. Drought accounts for 25% of all losses from weather-related disasters in the United States of America (Hayes et al., 2012).