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Hydro-diplomacy: The role of space-derived data in advancing water security

Water scarcity is one of the greatest threats faced by humanity of our time – in 2019, more than two billion people experience high water stress (UN-Water 2019) and approximately four billion people suffer from severe water scarcity for at least one month per year (Mekonnen and Hoekstra 2016). This worsening problem increases the risk of international conflict over water resources breaking out, given that there are over 270 transboundary river basins, and three-quarters of UN Member States share at least one river or lake basin with a neighbour (UN News 2017).

Relation of extreme precipitation with temperature: How do open-access global gridded datasets work in a hydrometeorological study?

Analysts have long noted that extreme precipitation appears to intensify with temperature at a rate of around 7%/°C, which is governed by the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) equation. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the spatio-temporal properties of hourly precipitation and daily dew point temperature. Specifically, the global gridded products of bias-corrected Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH-CRT) and ERA5 reanalysis were applied for nine locations in the world. The results show that significant spatial heterogeneity in extreme precipitation scaling is present at the selected locations, which might be attributed to local conditions, such as regional climate and the proximity to humidity sources. Despite the potential limitations, this study provides insight into the application of high-resolution open-access global gridded products in analysing precipitation scaling.

Monitoring runoff using Earth observation data

When rain falls on Earth, the water starts moving and flowing downhill through sewers and rivers as runoff. Runoff is extremely important to recharge surface water bodies and groundwater. Furthermore, runoff changes the landscape by action of erosion. It is an integral part of the water cycle (Earth Science Data Systems 2021). 

Monitoreando la escorrentía mediante datos de observación de la Tierra

Translated by Isabel Zetina

Cuando la lluvia cae sobre la Tierra, el agua empieza a moverse y a fluir cuesta abajo a través de alcantarillas y ríos en forma de escorrentía. La escorrentía es extremadamente importante para recargar las masas de agua de la superficie y las aguas subterráneas. Además, la escorrentía modifica el paisaje por acción de la erosión. Es una parte integral del ciclo del agua (Earth Science Data Systems 2021). 

Monitoring River Delta Using Remote Sensing

Since ancient times, people have established communities in river deltas because it provides water, fertile land, and transportation access, making them an ideal place to live. This pattern has been carried forward to the present. With nearly 60 billion people living in river deltas, they are one of the most densely populated places on Earth (Kuenzer and Renaud, 2011). However, they are facing threats such as climate change, sea level rise, land use changes, and ecosystem degradation.

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Stakeholder

International Research Center of Big Data for Sustainable Development Goals

With the aim of addressing global challenges in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, CBAS is committed to harnessing big data to support the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by reducing technological barriers and filling in data gaps. Since its inauguration, CBAS identified key areas of interest and has made significant progress. 

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis

The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) is an independent, international research institute with National Member Organizations in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe. Through its research programs and initiatives, the institute conducts policy-oriented research into issues that are too large or complex to be solved by a single country or academic discipline. This includes pressing concerns that affect the future of all of humanity, such as climate change, energy security, population aging, and sustainable development.

National Space Science Agency

NSSA seeks to establish a sound infrastructure for the observation of outer space and the earth, make Bahrain a leader in space science and technology, build a culture and methodology of scientific research within the kingdom and encourage technical innovation, among other goals. NSSA is interested in satellites to obtain data, to use them for remote sensing and to conduct advanced space research, so it can be the engine for the state in the use of the latest satellite communication technologies.

NSSA’s main projects are as follows:

Global Water Partnership

The Global Water Partnership (GWP) is a global action network with over 3,000 Partner organisations in 179 countries. The network has 69 accredited Country Water Partnerships and 13 Regional Water Partnerships.

The network is open to all organisations involved in water resources management: developed and developing country government institutions, agencies of the United Nations, bi- and multi-lateral development banks, professional associations, research institutions, non-governmental organisations, and the private sector.

Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Pokhara

The Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus (IOF-PC), Quality Assurance Accreditation (QAA) certified institution by the UGC, Nepal in September 2022, was established in 1981 as the Central Campus of the Institute of Forestry, one of the five technical institutes under Tribhuvan University, Nepal. The IOF, founded as Nepal Forestry Institute in Singh Durbar, Kathmandu, in 1947, was shifted to Suping (BhimPhedi) in 1957 and again to Hetauda in 1965.

Université Chouaib Doukkali

The Chouaib Doukkali University (CDU) [www.ucd.ac.ma] in El Jadida, Morocco was founded in 1985. It is a public institution of higher education and scientific research. At present, in the Chouaib Doukkali there are 6 faculties, and has more than 507 teachers, 255 administrators, and more than 25 000 students. Training is provided for bachelor degree and master degree. In terms of research, the University has established two centers for doctoral studies, with 25 laboratories involving 82 research teams.

Zimbabwe National Geospatial and Space Agency

The Zimbabwe National Geospatial and Space Agency (ZINGSA) is a wholly owned Government of Zimbabwe entity, established under the Research act [Chapter 10:20]. It is responsible for designing, promoting, coordinating and conducting research and development initiatives that promote advances in Geospatial Sciences and Earth Observations, Space Engineering, Space Science, Aeronautical Engineering, Mechatronics, Satellite Communication Systems, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Land Positioning Systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and Launch of Satellites.

Centre for Water and Landscape Dynamics, Australian National University

The ANU Centre for Water and Landscape Dynamics (WALD) is a world leader in observation technology for real time environmental information. WALD develops new methods to measure, monitor and forecast climate, water availability and landscape conditions. Our solutions frequently combine Big Data from satellite observation and sensor networks, with field research, biophysical modelling and machine learning.

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