Deforestation is the conversion of forest to an alternative permanent non-forested land use such as agriculture, grazing or urban development (Chakravarty et al. 2012). Deforestation is one of the critical issues in our global climate change era. It leads to two important environmental challenges, loss of biodiversity and increase of greenhouse gas emission (Indarto, 2016). 


Chakravarty, S., Ghosh, S. K., Suresh, C. P., Dey, A. N., & Shukla, G. 2012. "Deforestation: causes, effects and control strategies". Global perspectives on sustainable forest management, 1, 1-26.…

Indarto, J. 2016. "An overview of theoretical and empirical studies on deforestation". Journal of International Development and Cooperation.

Related Content


Space technology observing the effects of forests on watersheds

Have you ever heard the phrase "All the rivers run into the sea"? In most cases, this statement holds, with one exception: rivers that end up in lakes. If you imagine mountain ranges as the walls of a bathtub, the ocean is like the bottom of the bathtub, collecting all the water from the bathtub. No matter where you live, you inhabit a land area where all the water, above and below ground, converges into a common body of water (Figure 1). We call this area a watershed. Watersheds vary in size.