Modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI)

"Modified by substitution of a middle infrared band such as Landsat TM band 5 for the near infrared band used in the NDWI. The modified NDWI (MNDWI) can enhance open water features while efficiently suppressing and even removing built-up land noise as well as vegetation and soil noise. The enhanced water information using the NDWI is often mixed with built-up land noise and the area of extracted water is thus overestimated. Accordingly, the MNDWI is more suitable for enhancing and extracting water information for a water region with a background dominated by built-up land areas because of its advantage in reducing and even removing built-up land noise over the NDWI." (Xu, H., 2006)


Xu, H. Modification of normalised difference water index (NDWI) to enhance open water features in remotely sensed imagery.July 20, 2006. International Journal of Remote Sensing. Vol. 27, No. 14, 3025-3033. Link: